Artichoke Classifications and Groupings

ARTICHOKE

(Cynara
Scolymus L.)

The Globe Artichoke is an
herbaceous perennial grown for its flower head or flower bud. It is a coarse,
thistle like plant of the Sunflower Family, native to the Mediterranean region,
and common in wild form in Southern Europe and Northern Africa.

The
above ground portion of the plant dies back each year, and the crown of each
plant decays after a year’s growth, but is renewed by offshoots from the
rootstock. The flowers are born terminally on the main stem and the laterals.
The edible portion consists of bracts, which are fleshy at the lower end.

Artichokes
will grow in a wide range of soils, but like most cultivars they produce best
in deep fertile well-drained soils.

Present
day breeding activity is focused on the development of direct seeded varieties.
The ultimate goal is to create seed propagated populations with improved
characteristics and uniformity. Artichokes are octaploids, they are made up of
8 chromosomes and their selection process is not to be under-estimated. Any
Strain (Selection) development is a 10-year minimum investment of time and
effort.

Artichokes
are long day plants; in general their photoperiod is 10.5 solar-hours per day.

Classifications and Groupings of Cynara scolymus

Jefferson
Lowe and Dr. Bob Mazzei

Planters’
Guild, United States, European Union

Cultivated
artichokes have three basic head shapes, Globe, Spherical, Elongated.

Each
cultivar can be distinguished by their characteristics and groupings:

*Many
cultivars have more then one grouping.

 Main Groups:

 Spinosi
Group:
Characterized by any artichoke cultivar with sharp
spines in leaves and bracts.

 Semi-Spinosi
Group.
Characterized by any artichoke cultivar with few sharp
spines in leaves and bracts.

 Non-Spinosi
Group:
Characterized by any artichoke cultivar with no sharp
spines in leaves and bracts.

Elongated Group: Types
that are elongated (conical) shaped with green and violet colored heads.

Globe
Group:  
Types that are
spherical shaped, round bottom, round top, with green or violet colored heads.

Spherical Group: Types
that are spherical shaped, non-rounded bottoms, non-rounded tops with green or
violet colored heads.

Violet
Group:
Types that are globe, spherical and elongated (conical)
shaped with violet-colored heads.

Sub-Groups:

American Group: Types
that are globe, spherical and elongated (conical) shaped with green and
violet-colored heads.

Catanesi
Group Italian:
Types with elongated (conical) heads producing
continuously from fall to spring with green or violet colored heads.

Dutch Group: Types
that are globe shaped with green and violet-colored heads.

French Group: Types
that are globe, spherical and elongated (conical) shaped with green and
violet-colored heads.

Italian Group: Types that are
globe, spherical and elongated (conical) shaped with green and violet-colored
heads.

North African Group: Types
that are spherical and elongated (conical) shaped with green and violet-colored
heads.

Romaneschi
Group Italian:
Types with spherical heads, non-rounded bottoms, non-rounded
tops with green or violet colored heads.

Spanish Group: Types
that are globe, spherical and elongated (conical) shaped with green and
violet-colored heads.

Sardinian
Group Italian:
Types with elongated (conical) heads producing
continuously from fall to spring with green and violet colored heads.

Varieties past and present
from seed and clone:

Asterisk*
indicates variety is in production and where.

Main Groups

 Spinosi
Group: Globe Types

 Blanc d’Oran –out of production

 Blanc Hyerois –out of production

*Camus de
Bretagne -in vitro production Europe

 Chilena –out of production

 French Green Globe -out of production

*Desert
Globe -in vitro production USA

 Globe Artichoke -out of production

*Green
Globe -in seed production USA

*Green
Globe Improved -in seed production USA

 Red Globe -out of production

 Verte dé Laon –out of production

Spinosi Group: Spherical and Elongated Types

Argentina –out of production

*Baladí -in vitro production Egypt

 Bayrampsha –out of production

*Blanca
de Tudela -in vitro production Europe

 Brindisino –out of production

 Castel –out of production

*Calico -in
vitro production Europe

 Española –out of production

*Faransawy –in vitro production Europe

*Grand Buerre –in
seed production and in vitro production Europe

*Péruvien Creole
–in seed production Peru

*Petit Violet -in vitro production Europe

 Sakiz –out of production

*Talpiot –in seed
production and in vitro production Israel  

*Terom -in vitro
production Europe

*Thorny Sardinian -in vitro production Europe

 Violet d’Algérie –out of production

*Violetto Catanese -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto di Catania -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto Chioggia -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto Early -in vitro production Europe

*Violette dé Provence -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto di Romagna -in seed production USA and in vitro production Europe

 Semi-Spinosi Group: Globe Types

*Big
Heart -in vitro production USA

 Kiss Of Burgundy -out of production

*Jade
-in seed production USA

*Omaha -in vitro production USA

Semi-Spinosi Group: Spherical and Elongated Types

*Chianti
-in vitro production USA

*Mercury
-in vitro production USA

*Siena
-in vitro production USA

Non-Spinosi
Group: Globe Types

*A-106
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Apollo -in vitro production Europe

*Campania –in vitro production USA

*Colorado
Star PVP -in seed production USA

*Concerto
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Emerald
-in seed production USA

*Harmony
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Imperial
Star -in seed production USA

*King
-in vitro production USA

*Lorca
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Lyon
–in vitro production USA

*Madrigal
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Opal
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Symphony
–in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Tempo
-in seed and in vitro production

Non-Spinosi Group: Spherical and Elongated Types

*Anzio -in vitro production USA

*Exploter
-in vitro production Europe

*Fiesole -in vitro production USA

*Life -in vitro production Europe

*Tema 2000 -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto di Samassi -in vitro production Europe

Globe Group:

*A-106
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Apollo -in vitro production Europe

*Big
Heart -in vitro production USA

 Blanc d’Oran –out of production

 Blanc Hyerois –out of production
*Calico -in vitro production Europe

*Campania –in vitro production USA

*Camus dé
Bretagne -in vitro production Europe
 Chilena –out of production

*Colorado
Star PVP -in seed production USA

*Concerto
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Desert
Globe -in vitro production USA

*Emerald
-in seed production USA

 French Green Globe -out of production

 Globe Artichoke -out of production

*Green
Globe Improved -in seed production USA

*Green
Globe -in seed production USA

*Harmony
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Imperial
Star -in seed production USA

*Jade
-in seed production USA

*King
-in vitro production USA

 Kiss Of Burgundy -out of production

*Lorca
-In seed and in vitro production Europe

*Lyon
–in vitro production USA

*Madrigal
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Omaha -in vitro production USA

*Opal
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

 Red Globe -out of production

*Symphony
–in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Tempo
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

 Verte dé Laon –out of production

Violet
Group:

 Brindisino –out of production

*Campania –in vitro production USA

*Chianti -in vitro production USA

*Colorado
Star PVP -in seed production USA

*Concerto
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Exploter
-in vitro production Europe

*Fiesole
-in vitro production USA

 Kiss Of Burgundy -out of production

*Opal
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Petit Violet -in vitro production Europe

*Siena -in vitro production USA

*Tema 2000 -in vitro production Europe

*Tempo -in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Terom -in vitro production Europe

 Violet d’Algérie –out of production

*Violetto di Catania -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto Catanese -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto Chioggia -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto
Early -in vitro production Europe

*Violette dé Provence -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto di Romagna -in seed production USA / in vitro production Europe

*Violetto di Samassi -in vitro production Europe

Spherical Group:

*Calico
-in vitro production Europe

 Castel –out of production

*Chianti -in vitro production USA

*Grand
Buerre –in seed production and in vitro production Europe

*Life
-in vitro production Europe

*Mercury
-in vitro production USA

*Talpiot
–in seed production and In vitro production Israel

*Terom
-in vitro production Europe

Elongated Group:

*Anzio –in vitro production USA

 Argentina –out of production

*Baladí
-in vitro production Egypt

 Bayrampsha –out of production

*Blanca de Tudela
-in vitro production Europe

 Brindisino –out of production

 Española –out of production

*Exploter
-in vitro production Europe

*Faransawy
–in vitro production Europe

*Péruvien
Creole –in seed production Peru

*Petit Violet -in vitro production Europe

 Sakiz –out of production

*Siena
-in vitro production USA

*Tema 2000 -in vitro production Europe
*Thorny Sardinian -in vitro production Europe
 Violet d’Algérie –out of production
*Violetto Catanese -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto di Catania -in vitro production Europe
*Violetto Chioggia -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto Early -in vitro production Europe

*Violette dé
Provence -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto di Romagna -in seed production USA and in vitro production Europe

*Violetto di Samassi -in vitro production Europe

Sub-Groups

American Group:

*Anzio -in vitro production USA

*Big
Heart -in vitro production USA

*Campania –in vitro production USA

*Chianti -in vitro production USA

*Colorado
Star PVP -in seed production USA

*Desert
Globe -In vitro production USA

*Emerald
-in seed production USA

*Fiesole
-in vitro production USA

 Globe Artichoke -out of production

*Green
Globe -in seed production USA

*Green
Globe Improved -in seed production USA

*Imperial
Star -in seed production USA

*Jade
-in seed production USA

*King
-in vitro production USA

 Kiss Of Burgundy -out of production

*Lyon –in vitro production USA

*Mercury -in vitro production USA

*Omaha -in vitro production USA

 Red Globe -out
of production

*Siena -in vitro production USA

 Catanesi Group Italy:

*Exploter -in vitro production Europe
*Violetto di Catania -in vitro production Europe

 Dutch Group:

*Concerto
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Harmony
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Madrigal
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Opal
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Symphony
–in seed and in vitro production Europe

*Tempo
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

 French Group:

 Blanc d’Oran –out of production

 Blanc Hyerois –out pf
production
*Camus de Bretagne -in vitro production Europe

 Castel –out of production

*Faransawy
–in vitro production Europe

 French Green Globe -out of production
*Petit Violet -in vitro production Europe

 Verte dé Laon -out of production

*Violette dé
Provence -in vitro production Euro

 Italian Group:

*Apollo -in vitro production Europe

*Calico -in vitro production Europe

*Tema 2000 -in vitro production Europe

*Terom -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto Catanese -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto Chioggia -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto
Early -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto di Romagna -in seed production USA / in vitro production Europe

 North
African Group:

*Baladí -in vitro production Egypt
 Violet d’Algérie –out of production

 Romaneschi Group Italy:

*Apollo -in vitro production Europe

*Life -in vitro production Europe

*Romenesco-C3 –in vitro production Europe

 Spanish
Group:

*A-106
-in seed and in vitro production Europe

 Argentina –out of production
*Blanca de Tudela -in vitro production Europe
 Chilena –out of production
 Española –out of production

*Lorca
-in seed and in vitro production Europe
*Peruvien Creole –in seed production Peru

 Sardinian
Group Italy:

*Thorny
Sardinian -in vitro production Europe

*Violetto di Samassi -in vitro production Europe

 ingle Varieties with no sub-grouping:

 Bayrampsha -out of production
 Brindisino –out of production
*Grand Buerre –in seed production and in vitro production Europe

 Sakiz –out of production

*Talpiot –in
seed production and in vitro production Israel